National symbols of Japan
The origin of the name “Japan” dates back to the distant historical past. The great traveler Marco Polo territory, where the modern Japanese state, was called the “Zipan-th”, and the basis probably took the Chinese word “JI-Ben-th”, which means Eastern Empire. The Japanese, who throughout its history very much borrowed from the Chinese, said relevant Chinese characters as “Russia”, and then began to pronounce as “Nippon”. First, the Japanese used that word as the name of the largest island, and then began to label the group of Islands, later – all state. Their country the Japanese call “Dai Nippon”, which means “land of the rising sun”.
Flag Of Japan
In ancient Japan, flags with the image of the sun were used by some influential families. Mention of such flags met in the Chronicles for nearly six centuries ago.
It is known that the attempts of the Mongolian invasion of Japan in 1274 and 1281. the representative of the influential religious sect Nichiren handed the flag to the country ruled by warlord – shogun. One of the great unifier of Japan Toyotomi Hideyoshi used this flag in his Korean campaigns (1592 and 1597).
After the termination of the period of isolation, when the Japanese government lifted the ban on the construction of large ships capable of crossing the ocean, the Japanese came the need to define their trading ships.
After the Meiji restoration of 1868, on a proposal from the daimyo of the Satsuma flag in its present form was proposed as a national symbol. By the decree of the State Council in 1869 identified the dimensions and figure of the national flag. The flag is a white flag, which depicts a red circle, symbolizing the sun. The Japanese flag is often called Hinomaru (the solar disk). The standard form of the flag is rectangular, ratio of length to width is 7 to 10, the diameter of the image of the solar disk is 3/5 of the flag width and the center shifted by 1/100 of its length to the shaft. The material for the manufacture of the flag was not specified. As the flagpole is more commonly used bamboo with painted in black horizontal stripes and a nozzle in the form of a Golden globe.
The first demonstration of a flag with the image of the sun as symbol of the nation took place in 1860 in the United States of America, where the Japanese government for the first time in the entire history of the country sent a diplomatic foreign mission. For these purposes it was given an American warship. The ship with the delegation carried an American flag at the stern and the Japanese on the nose.
In Japan, Hinomaru, a flag with the image of the sun, was first used in an official ceremony in 1872, It happened during the opening by Emperor Meiji, the first railway in Japan.
After the defeat of Japan in world war II using Hinomaru in the role of official state flag was discontinued. The opposition pointed to the fact that this flag is associated the Japanese and the peoples of the surrounding countries with aggressive policies. In 1999 the Parliament of Japan once again gave official status to this flag.
Today, in the days of national holidays on the buildings of official institutions, vehicles and some homes posted Hinomaru.
The Coat Of Arms Of Japan
In the minds of the Japanese chrysanthemum are inseparable and the Sun. Denoting these concepts words — homonyms, they sound the same — “Kiku” and portrayed a single character. So the main flower of Japan is named for luminaries, from which, according to legend, traces its history back to the Japanese people. Very honorable place assigned to the chrysanthemum and state symbols. Presumably from the VII century when the pattern of chrysanthemums decorated the blade Mikado, she is considered the emblem of the Japanese emperors. Stylized Golden flower c double sixteen petals to this day remains the emblem of the Imperial house, and sometimes performs the role of the national emblem: on coins, stamps and official documents. That image chrysanthemums was considered sacred, the right to it, in particular, to wear clothes pattern 16-petal flower, belonged exclusively to the members of the Imperial family. Violating this order is an ordinary Japanese were threatened with the death penalty. The same chrysanthemum emblazoned on the Chrysanthemum established in 1888 and up to the present time considered to be the highest and the most honorable award in the country. However, for the Japanese solar flower — not just frozen in the metal symbol. This plant in Japan surrounded by love and care. The Japanese have no equal in the industrial breeding of chrysanthemums, in the creation of new varieties with a variety of shapes and colors. Obviously, due to long flowering period, the chrysanthemum symbolizes happiness and longevity. There is a belief that collected from chrysanthemum dew prolongs life.